LORI

Lori (Armenian: Լոռու մարզ) is a province (marz) of Armenia. It is located in the north of the country, bordering GeorgiaVanadzor is the capital and largest city of the province. Other important towns include StepanavanAlaverdi and Spitak. It is home to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Haghpat and Sanahin monasteries and the well-preserved Akhtala monastery, where Armenians, Georgians, and Greeks make an annual pilgrimage on September 20–21. Lori borders the Tavush province in the east, Kotayk in the southeast, Aragatsotn in the southwest and Shirak in the west.

Lori is the birthplace of several famous Armenians including musician Sayat-Nova, Armenia's national poet Hovhannes Tumanyan, Soviet aircraft designer Artem Mikoyan, and Soviet statesman Anastas Mikoyan.

The province was affected severely by the 1988 Armenian earthquake.

Lori was known as Tashir in the antiquity. Until the 5th century, Tashir was part of the Gugark region of Greater Armenia.

The name Lori (Լոռի, known as Lore ლორე in Georgian) did not appear until the 10th century, when the Armenian Kingdom of Lori (Tashir-Dzoraget) was established by Kiurike I with the help of Georgia and another Armenian Kingdom of Vaspurakan. In the 11th century, David the Landless founded the fortified city of Lori (or Lore). The fortress-city became the kingdom's capital in 1065. The name Lori later spread through the region and replaced Tashir.

The Seljuks invaded the region in the early 12th century, but their rule did not last long and in 1118-1122 the Georgian king David the Builderconquered Lori and gave it to the Georgian-Armenian Orbeli dynasty. The Orbeli unsuccessfully revolted in 1177, after which a Kipchaknamed Khubasari was appointed spasalari of Lori. The province became the ownership of the Zakarian dynasty when in 1185 Tamar of Georgia appointed prince Sargis Zakarian as its governor.

Between 11th and 13th centuries, the monasteries of HaghpatSanahinKobayr and the Bardzrakash in Dsegh served as centers of Armenian culture and science. Scholars such as Hovhannes Imastaser, Grigor Tuteordi, Davit Kobayretsi, Grigor Magistros worked in these monasteries. The region was devastated by the Mongol invasion of 1236 and the Zakarian dynasty declined by the 14th century.

Lori was annexed by Safavid Persia in accordance to the 1555 Peace of Amasya and became part of Persia's Kartli-Kakheti province. AfterNadir Shah's murder in 1747, the Georgian kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti became independent and united into a single kingdom by 1762.In 1801, together with Georgian provinces of Kartli and Kakheti, Lori was annexed by the Russian Empire. In 1850, Lori was incorporated into the Erivan Governorate. In 1862, it was transferred into the jurisdiction of the Tiflis Governorate. In 1880, Lori became part of the Borchaliokrug of the Tiflis Governorate. In the early 20th century, Lori was mostly Armenian-populated with several Russian and Greek villages.

In late 1918, Armenia and Georgia fought a border war over Lori. It was put under a British control as a neutral zone. Following Armenia's sovietization in late 1920, Lori was incorporated into Soviet Armenia.

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Sanahin monastery complex Xs

 

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Hagpat monastery complex X s

 

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Odzun monastery complex Xs